Saving lives when disasters strike and Sentinel-5P satellite

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Saving lives when disasters strike and Sentinel-5P satellite

Message par yanis la chouette le Mar 17 Oct - 16:56


Title Saving lives when disasters strike
Released: 23/10/2015
Length 00:03:45
Language English
Footage Type Animation
Copyright ESA
Description

Founded in 2000 by the European, French and Canadian Space agencies,
the International Charter Space and Major Disasters provides the best-available satellite pictures.
These images help with disaster relief and recovery anywhere in the world, free of charge.

http://www.esa.int/Our_Activities/Operations/Sentinel-5P_satellite_in_excellent_health

16 October 2017

Launched last week, Europe’s Sentinel-5P satellite – the first Copernicus mission
dedicated to monitoring the air we breathe – is in excellent health.

The 820 kg satellite was lofted into orbit from the Plesetsk Cosmodrome
in northern Russia last Friday on a Rockot.

The satellite will use its state-of-the-art Tropomi instrument to monitor
our atmosphere, mapping a multitude of gases that affect the air we breathe,
our climate and human health.

After separating from the upper stage at an orbital speed of around 27 000 km/h,
Sentinel opened its three solar panels and began communicating with Earth.

The first signal was received 93 min after launch as it passed over
the Kiruna station in northern Sweden.

Contact meant that engineers at ESA’s mission control in Darmstadt, Germany,
could assume control of the satellite, and begin working around the clock to check its
condition and start setting it up it for routine flight.

Sentinel-5P on Rockot
Access the video

The satellite is on solar power, its navigation and communication systems are operating
as expected and it is fully functional after its raucous ride into space.

“Sentinel-5P is in excellent health and we were a little ahead of schedule in the timeline
for the first three days,” says spacecraft operations manager Daniel Mesples.

“That meant we could reduce our 24 hours-a-day schedule a little earlier than planned
and declare that the initial phase was complete by Saturday evening.

“As of today, we’re back to working daytime hours. Everything is going very well.”

The good news means the satellite is ready for the next crucial phase:
commissioning the Tropomi atmosphere sensor over the next six months.

Bringing air pollution into focus
Access the video

Once in service, it will map the entire planet every day for Europe’s Copernicus Atmosphere
Monitoring Service air quality forecasts and for decision-making.

It is the first Copernicus mission dedicated to monitoring our atmosphere. It follows a fleet
of five other Sentinels already in orbit and delivering a wealth of information about our planet.

The Sentinels make up the core of the space component of the EU’s Copernicus environmental
monitoring network.

An EU flagship space initiative, Copernicus provides timely operational information on the world’s land surfaces,
oceans and atmosphere to support environmental and security policymaking,
and meet the needs of citizens and service providers.
Engineers working on console in the Main Control Room at ESA’s ESOC mission control centre,
Darmstadt, Germany, on 13 October 2017, just hours before the launch of Sentinel-5P
Launch day at mission control

“The satellite completed its initial critical orbital activities in just about 33 hours, a record,
and this time there were no surprises,” says Paolo Ferri, head of mission operations at ESA.

“This is a testament to the quality of the satellite builders and the expertise
of the mission control team, mixed with the necessary bit of luck.

“Given the complexity of spaceflight and the factors that can’t be fully predicted,
we can’t always count on this, but we are happy when it does happen.”

The Doors - Riders On The Storm
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lS-af9Q-zvQ

George Stephen Morrison (Rome (Géorgie), 7 janvier 1919 - Coronado (Californie),
17 novembre 2008) est un amiral et aviateur naval de la marine des États-Unis.
Morrison a été le commandant des forces navales américaines dans le golfe du Tonkin
au cours de l'incident du Golfe du Tonkin d'août 1964, qui a servi de prétexte à l'engagement
des États-Unis dans la guerre du Viêt Nam.

Il est le père de Jim Morrison, le chanteur du groupe de rock The Doors1,2,3.

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Re: Saving lives when disasters strike and Sentinel-5P satellite

Message par yanis la chouette le Mar 17 Oct - 16:59

16 October 2017

ESA’s Integral satellite recently played a crucial role in discovering the flash
of gamma rays linked to the gravitational waves released by the collision
of two neutron stars.

On 17 August, a burst of gamma rays lit up in space for almost two seconds.
It was promptly recorded by Integral and NASA’s Fermi satellite.

Such short gamma-ray bursts are not uncommon: Integral catches
about 20 every year. But this one was special: just seconds
before the two satellites saw the blast, an entirely different instrument
was triggered on Earth.

One of the two detectors of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave
Observatory (LIGO) experiment, in the USA, recorded the passage of gravitational waves
– fluctuations in the fabric of spacetime caused by powerful cosmic events.
ESA’s Integral observatory is able to detect gamma-ray bursts, the most energetic
phenomena in the Universe.
Integral gamma-ray observatory

“This is a ground-breaking discovery, revealing for the first time gravitational waves
and highly energetic light released by the same cosmic source,”
says Erik Kuulkers, Integral project scientist at ESA.

Before this finding, gravitational waves had been confirmed on four occasions:
in all cases, they were traced back to pairs of merging black holes as
they spiralled towards each other.

The two LIGO detectors had seen the first in September 2015, followed
by two more in late 2015 and early 2017. Recently, on 14 August, the fourth observation
of gravitational waves also involved Europe’s Virgo instrument in Italy.

These detections won the LIGO founding scientists the Nobel Prize
in physics earlier this month.

Gravitational waves are the only ‘messenger’ expected when black holes collide.
Following these four measurements, scientists across the world began searching
with ground and space telescopes for possible luminous bursts linked
to the gravitational waves.

“We had contributed to these earlier searches with Integral, looking for gamma-
or X-ray emission and finding none, as expected from the vast majority of theories,”
says Volodymyr Savchenko from the Integral Science Data Centre
in Geneva, Switzerland.

This time, however, the story took a different turn.

Neutron star merger
Access the video

Other cosmic clashes are suspected to release not only gravitational waves
but also light across the electromagnetic spectrum. This can happen, for example,
when the collision involves one or more neutron stars – like black holes,
they are compact remnants of what were once massive stars.

Merging neutron stars have also been thought to be the long-sought sources
of short gamma-ray bursts, though no observational proof had yet been found.

Until August.

Pink Floyd - Another Brick In The Wall
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YR5ApYxkU-U

George Stephen Morrison (Rome (Géorgie), 7 janvier 1919 - Coronado (Californie),
17 novembre 2008) est un amiral et aviateur naval de la marine des États-Unis.
Morrison a été le commandant des forces navales américaines dans le golfe du Tonkin
au cours de l'incident du Golfe du Tonkin d'août 1964, qui a servi de prétexte à l'engagement
des États-Unis dans la guerre du Viêt Nam.

Il est le père de Jim Morrison, le chanteur du groupe de rock The Doors1,2,3.

RAPPORT DU
CITOYEN TIGNARD YANIS
ALIAS
TAY
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yanis la chouette

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Re: Saving lives when disasters strike and Sentinel-5P satellite

Message par yanis la chouette le Mar 17 Oct - 17:09

NASA Missions Catch First Light from a Gravitational-Wave Event

For the first time, NASA scientists have detected light tied to a gravitational-wave event,
thanks to two merging neutron stars in the galaxy NGC 4993, located about 130 million
light-years from Earth in the constellation Hydra.

Shortly after 5:41 a.m. PDT (8:41 a.m. EDT) on Aug. 17, NASA's Fermi Gamma-ray
Space Telescope picked up a pulse of high-energy light from a powerful explosion,
which was immediately reported to astronomers around the globe as a short gamma-ray burst.
The scientists at the National Science Foundation's Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave
Observatory (LIGO) detected gravitational waves dubbed GW170817 from a pair of smashing stars
tied to the gamma-ray burst, encouraging astronomers to look for the aftermath
of the explosion. Shortly thereafter, the burst was detected as part of a follow-up analysis
by ESA's (European Space Agency's) INTEGRAL satellite.

NASA's Swift, Hubble, Chandra and Spitzer missions, along with dozens
of ground-based observatories, including the NASA-funded Pan-STARRS survey,
later captured the fading glow of the blast's expanding debris.

"This is extremely exciting science," said Paul Hertz, director of NASA's Astrophysics
Division at the agency's headquarters in Washington. "Now, for the first time, we've seen
light and gravitational waves produced by the same event. The detection
of a gravitational-wave source's light has revealed details of the event that cannot
be determined from gravitational waves alone. The multiplier effect
of study with many observatories is incredible."

Neutron stars are the crushed, leftover cores of massive stars that previously
exploded as supernovas long ago. The merging stars likely had masses between
10 and 60 percent greater than that of our Sun, but they were no wider
than Washington, D.C. The pair whirled around each other hundreds of times
a second, producing gravitational waves at the same frequency.
As they drew closer and orbited faster, the stars eventually broke apart
and merged, producing both a gamma-ray burst and a rarely seen
flare-up called a "kilonova."

"This is the one we've all been waiting for," said David Reitze, executive director
of the LIGO Laboratory at Caltech in Pasadena, California. "Neutron star mergers produce
a wide variety of light because the objects form a maelstrom
of hot debris when they collide. Merging black holes -- the types of events LIGO
and its European counterpart, Virgo, have previously seen --
very likely consume any matter around them long before they crash,
so we don't expect the same kind of light show."

"The favored explanation for short gamma-ray bursts is that they're
caused by a jet of debris moving near the speed of light produced
in the merger of neutron stars or a neutron star and a black hole,"
said Eric Burns, a member of Fermi's Gamma-ray Burst Monitor team
at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland.
"LIGO tells us there was a merger of compact objects, and Fermi tells us
there was a short gamma-ray burst. Together, we know that what we observed
was the merging of two neutron stars, dramatically confirming the relationship."

Within hours of the initial Fermi detection, LIGO and the Virgo detector
at the European Gravitational Observatory near Pisa, Italy, greatly refined
the event's position in the sky with additional analysis of gravitational wave data.
Ground-based observatories then quickly located a new optical and infrared source --
the kilonova -- in NGC 4993.

To Fermi, this appeared to be a typical short gamma-ray burst, but it occurred
less than one-tenth as far away as any other short burst with a known distance,
making it among the faintest known. Astronomers are still trying
to figure out why this burst is so odd, and how this event relates to the more
luminous gamma-ray bursts seen at much greater distances.

NASA's Swift, Hubble and Spitzer missions followed the evolution of the kilonova
to better understand the composition of this slower-moving material,
while Chandra searched for X-rays associated with the remains of the ultra-fast jet.

When Swift turned to the galaxy shortly after Fermi's gamma-ray burst detection,
it found a bright and quickly fading ultraviolet (UV) source.

"We did not expect a kilonova to produce bright UV emission,"
said Goddard's S. Bradley Cenko, principal investigator for Swift.
"We think this was produced by the short-lived disk of debris
that powered the gamma-ray burst."

Over time, material hurled out by the jet slows and widens as it sweeps up
and heats interstellar material, producing so-called afterglow emission that includes X-rays.

But the spacecraft saw no X-rays -- a surprise for an event that produced higher-energy gamma rays.

NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory clearly detected X-rays nine days after the source was discovered.
Scientists think the delay was a result of our viewing angle, and it took time for the jet directed toward Earth
to expand into our line of sight.

"The detection of X-rays demonstrates that neutron star mergers can form powerful
jets streaming out at near light speed," said Goddard's Eleonora Troja, who led one
of the Chandra teams and found the X-ray emission.We had to wait for nine days
to detect it because we viewed it from the side, unlike anything we had seen before."

On Aug. 22, NASA's Hubble Space Telescope began imaging the kilonova and capturing
its near-infrared spectrum, which revealed the motion and chemical composition
of the expanding debris.

"The spectrum looked exactly like how theoretical physicists had predicted the outcome
of the merger of two neutron stars would appear," said Andrew Levan at the University
of Warwick in Coventry, England, who led one of the proposals for Hubble spectral observations.
"It tied this object to the gravitational wave source beyond all reasonable doubt."

Astronomers think a kilonova's visible and infrared light primarily arises through heating
from the decay of radioactive elements formed in the neutron-rich debris.
Crashing neutron stars may be the universe's dominant source for many
of the heaviest elements, including platinum and gold.

Because of its Earth-trailing orbit, Spitzer was uniquely situated to observe
the kilonova long after the Sun moved too close to the galaxy
for other telescopes to see it. Spitzer's Sept. 30 observation captured
the longest-wavelength infrared light from the kilonova, which unveils
the quantity of heavy elements forged.

"Spitzer was the last to join the party, but it will have the final word
on how much gold was forged," says Mansi Kasliwal, Caltech assistant professor
and principal investigator of the Spitzer observing program.

Numerous scientific papers describing and interpreting these observations
have been published in Science, Nature, Physical Review Letters
and The Astrophysical Journal.

Gravitational waves were directly detected for the first time in 2015 by LIGO,
whose architects were awarded the 2017 Nobel Prize in physics for the discovery.

News Media Contact
Elizabeth Landau
Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA
818-354-6425
elizabeth.landau@jpl.nasa.gov

Felicia Chou
NASA Headquarters, Washington
202-358-0257
felicia.chou@nasa.gov

Dewayne Washington
Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md.
301-286-0040
dewayne.a.washington@nasa.gov

Molly Porter
Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Ala.
256-544-0034
molly.a.porter@nasa.gov

2017-270

https://www.jpl.nasa.gov/news/news.php?feature=6975&utm_source=iContact&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=NASAJPL&utm_content=ligo20171016

George Stephen Morrison (Rome (Géorgie), 7 janvier 1919 - Coronado (Californie),
17 novembre 2008) est un amiral et aviateur naval de la marine des États-Unis.
Morrison a été le commandant des forces navales américaines dans le golfe du Tonkin
au cours de l'incident du Golfe du Tonkin d'août 1964, qui a servi de prétexte à l'engagement
des États-Unis dans la guerre du Viêt Nam.

Il est le père de Jim Morrison, le chanteur du groupe de rock The Doors1,2,3.

RAPPORT DU
CITOYEN TIGNARD YANIS
ALIAS
TAY
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yanis la chouette

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Re: Saving lives when disasters strike and Sentinel-5P satellite

Message par yanis la chouette le Mar 17 Oct - 17:48

At #DPS17? Visit the #K2Mission and @NASA_
TESS booths. We provide high-precision lightcurves
for hundreds of faint Solar System objects!

For the first time, NASA scientists have detected light tied to a gravitational-wave event,
thanks to two merging neutron stars in the galaxy NGC 4993, located about 130 million light-years
from Earth in the constellation Hydra.

Shortly after 8:41 a.m. EDT on Aug. 17, NASA's Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope
picked up a pulse of high-energy light from a powerful explosion, which was immediately
reported to astronomers around the globe as a short gamma-ray burst.
The scientists at the National Science Foundation’s Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave
Observatory (LIGO) detected gravitational waves dubbed GW170817 from a pair
of smashing stars tied to the gamma-ray burst, encouraging astronomers to look
for the aftermath of the explosion. Shortly thereafter, the burst was detected
as part of a follow-up analysis by ESA’s (European Space Agency’s) INTEGRAL satellite.

Swift’s Ultraviolet/Optical Telescope imaged the kilonova produced by merging neutron
stars in the galaxy NGC 4993 (box) on Aug.
Swift’s Ultraviolet/Optical Telescope imaged the kilonova produced by merging neutron stars
in the galaxy NGC 4993 (box) on Aug. 18, 2017, about 15 hours after gravitational waves
and the gamma-ray burst were detected. The source was unexpectedly bright in ultraviolet light.
It faded rapidly and was undetectable in UV when Swift looked again on Aug. 29.
This false-color composite combines images taken through three ultraviolet filters.
Inset: Magnified views of the galaxy.
Credits: NASA/Swift

NASA's Swift, Hubble, Chandra and Spitzer missions, along with dozens
of ground-based observatories, including the NASA-funded Pan-STARRS survey,
later captured the fading glow of the blast's expanding debris.

"This is extremely exciting science," said Paul Hertz, director
of NASA’s Astrophysics Division at the agency’s headquarters in Washington.
"Now, for the first time, we've seen light and gravitational waves produced
by the same event. The detection of a gravitational-wave source’s light
has revealed details of the event that cannot be determined from gravitational
waves alone. The multiplier effect of study with many observatories is incredible."

Neutron stars are the crushed, leftover cores of massive stars that
previously exploded as supernovas long ago.
The merging stars likely had masses between 10 and 60 percent greater
than that of our Sun, but they were no wider than Washington, D.C.
The pair whirled around each other hundreds of times a second, producing
gravitational waves at the same frequency. As they drew closer
and orbited faster, the stars eventually broke apart and merged,
producing both a gamma-ray burst and a rarely seen flare-up called
a "kilonova."

"This is the one we've all been waiting for," said David Reitze, executive
director of the LIGO Laboratory at Caltech in Pasadena, California.
"Neutron star mergers produce a wide variety of light because
the objects form a maelstrom of hot debris when they collide. Merging black holes
-- the types of events LIGO and its European counterpart, Virgo, have previously seen --
very likely consume any matter around them long before they crash,
so we don't expect the same kind of light show."

"The favored explanation for short gamma-ray bursts is that
they're caused by a jet of debris moving near the speed of light produced
in the merger of neutron stars or a neutron star and a black hole,"
said Eric Burns, a member of Fermi's Gamma-ray Burst Monitor team
at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland.
"LIGO tells us there was a merger of compact objects, and Fermi
tells us there was a short gamma-ray burst. Together, we know
that what we observed was the merging of two neutron stars,
dramatically confirming the relationship."

Within hours of the initial Fermi detection, LIGO and the Virgo
detector at the European Gravitational Observatory near Pisa,
Italy, greatly refined the event's position in the sky with additional
analysis of gravitational wave data. Ground-based observatories
then quickly located a new optical and infrared source -- the kilonova --
in NGC 4993.  

To Fermi, this appeared to be a typical short gamma-ray burst, but it occurred
less than one-tenth as far away as any other short burst with a known distance,
making it among the faintest known. Astronomers are still trying to figure out
why this burst is so odd, and how this event relates to the more
luminous gamma-ray bursts seen at much greater distances.

NASA’s Swift, Hubble and Spitzer missions followed the evolution
of the kilonova to better understand the composition
of this slower-moving material, while Chandra searched for X-rays
associated with the remains of the ultra-fast jet.

When Swift turned to the galaxy shortly after Fermi’s gamma-ray
burst detection, it found a bright and quickly fading ultraviolet (UV) source.

"We did not expect a kilonova to produce bright UV emission,"
said Goddard’s S. Bradley Cenko, principal investigator for Swift.
"We think this was produced by the short-lived disk of debris that powered the gamma-ray burst."

Over time, material hurled out by the jet slows
and widens as it sweeps up and heats interstellar material,
producing so-called afterglow emission that includes X-rays.

But the spacecraft saw no X-rays -- a surprise for an event
that produced higher-energy gamma rays.

NASA’s Chandra X-ray Observatory clearly detected X-rays nine days
after the source was discovered. Scientists think the delay was a result
of our viewing angle, and it took time for the jet directed toward Earth to expand into our line of sight.

kilonova associated with GW170817 (box) was observed
by NASA's Hubble Space Telescope and Chandra X-ray Observatory
The kilonova associated with GW170817 (box) was observed
by NASA's Hubble Space Telescope and Chandra X-ray Observatory.
Hubble detected optical and infrared light from the hot expanding debris.
The merging neutron stars produced gravitational waves and launched jets
that produced a gamma-ray burst. Nine days later, Chandra detected
the X-ray afterglow emitted by the jet directed toward Earth after
it had spread into our line of sight.
Credits: NASA/CXC/E. Troja

"The detection of X-rays demonstrates that neutron star mergers can form
powerful jets streaming out at near light speed," said Goddard's Eleonora Troja,
who led one of the Chandra teams and found the X-ray emission.
"We had to wait for nine days to detect it because we viewed it from the side,
unlike anything we had seen before."

On Aug. 22, NASA’s Hubble Space Telescope began imaging
the kilonova and capturing its near-infrared spectrum, which revealed
the motion and chemical composition of the expanding debris.

Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory detected gravitational
waves from a neutron star collision
On August 17, 2017, the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory
detected gravitational waves from a neutron star collision. Within 12 hours,
observatories had identified the source of the event within the galaxy
NGC 4993, shown in this Hubble Space Telescope image, and located
an associated stellar flare called a kilonova (box). Inset: Hubble observed
the kilonova fade over the course of six days.
Credits: NASA and ESA

"The spectrum looked exactly like how theoretical physicists had predicted
the outcome of the merger of two neutron stars would appear," said Andrew Levan
at the University of Warwick in Coventry, England, who led one
of the proposals for Hubble spectral observations. "It tied this object
to the gravitational wave source beyond all reasonable doubt."

Astronomers think a kilonova's visible and infrared light primarily arises
through heating from the decay of radioactive elements formed
in the neutron-rich debris. Crashing neutron stars may be the universe's
dominant source for many of the heaviest elements, including platinum and gold.

Because of its Earth-trailing orbit, Spitzer was uniquely situated
to observe the kilonova long after the Sun moved too close
to the galaxy for other telescopes to see it. Spitzer's Sept. 30 observation
captured the longest-wavelength infrared light from the kilonova, which unveils
the quantity of heavy elements forged.

"Spitzer was the last to join the party, but it will have the final word on how much
gold was forged," says Mansi Kasliwal, Caltech assistant professor
and principal investigator of the Spitzer observing program.

Numerous scientific papers describing and interpreting these observations
have been published in Science, Nature, Physical Review Letters and The Astrophysical Journal.

Gravitational waves were directly detected for the first time in 2015
by LIGO, whose architects were awarded the 2017 Nobel Prize in physics
for the discovery.

-end-

Felicia Chou
Headquarters, Washington
202-358-0257
felicia.chou@nasa.gov

Dewayne Washington
Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md.
301-286-0040
dewayne.a.washington@nasa.gov

Molly Porter
Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Ala.
256-544-0034
molly.a.porter@nasa.gov
Last Updated: Oct. 16, 2017
Editor: Sean Potter
Tags:  Chandra X-Ray Observatory, Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope,
Goddard Space Flight Center, Hubble Space Telescope, Jet Propulsion Laboratory,
Solar System, Spitzer Space Telescope, Stars, Swift

David Gilmour's First Year with Pink Floyd 1968
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cT9EFRd4LBw

George Stephen Morrison (Rome (Géorgie), 7 janvier 1919 - Coronado (Californie),
17 novembre 2008) est un amiral et aviateur naval de la marine des États-Unis.
Morrison a été le commandant des forces navales américaines dans le golfe du Tonkin
au cours de l'incident du Golfe du Tonkin d'août 1964, qui a servi de prétexte à l'engagement
des États-Unis dans la guerre du Viêt Nam.

https://www.nasa.gov/press-release/nasa-missions-catch-first-light-from-a-gravitational-wave-event

Il est le père de Jim Morrison, le chanteur du groupe de rock The Doors1,2,3.


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